We should also not overlook the ingenuity of medieval artisans.For example, Leonardo da Vinci was known for his detailed descriptions of anatomy and the mechanical structures that he engineered.

John’s Cathedral, under the guardianship of the archbishop of Turin.

Its authenticity has always been debated, but this has only gotten worse in recent years, and we regularly receive inquiries about it.

There is no ‘paper trail’ that gives us a clear chain of custody and it cannot be known that earlier objects with similar claims (e.g. Manufacturing: It is possible that the image on the Shroud was formed by common biochemical reactions called Maillard reactions.

But, even if the Shroud was once wrapped around a human body, this would preclude the body of Jesus because these reactions are associated with decomposition.

Provenance: Many false relics are known from the Middle Ages, including many from the regions of northern Italy and France.

This raises the suspicion that the Shroud is also a forgery, since it was first displayed in the 14 century in France.

Physical Chemistry: It is also questionable why the blood stains have remained red so long after death.

Nuclear chemistry: Pro-Shroud researchers have always called the reliability of the multiple carbon dates that have been obtained from the Shroud into question.

Figure 1: The Shroud of Turin contains a faint dorsal (top half) and frontal (lower half) image of a man, with many features paralleling the Crucifixion.

Yet, the historical record of the Shroud is spotty, multiple features on it conflict with the biblical record of events, and carbon dating places it squarely in the medieval era.

In 1532 the Shroud suffered fire damage in the chapel where it was housed.